The name Kolkata was referred to in the rent roll of the Mughal ruler Akbar (administered 1556-1605) and besides in the Manasa-mangal of the Bengali craftsman Bipradas (1495). The authentic scenery of Kolkata as a British settlement, alluded to the British as Calcutta, dates from the underpinning of a corner store there by Job Charnock, an expert of the English East India Company, in 1690.
Charnock had as of late had inquiries with specialists of the Mughal Empire at the stream port of Hugli (Hooghly) and had been obliged to leave, after which he attempted vainly to get himself at various spots down the stream. Once more when the Mughal specialists, not wishing to lose what they had gained from the English association’s business, permitted Charnock to return, he picked Calcutta as the seat of his errands. The site was clearly meticulously picked, being defended by the Hugli (Hooghly) River on the west, a spring northward, and salt lakes eastward. Rival Dutch, French, and other European settlements were higher up the stream on the west bank, so that entry from the sea was not sabotaged, as it was at the port of Hugli. The stream presently was also wide and significant; the principle bother was that the lowlands eastward and marshes inside the area made the spot unfortunate. Additionally, before the oncoming of the English, three neighborhood towns Sutanati, Kalikata, and Gobindapore, which were later to become bits of Calcutta-had been picked as spots to settle by Indian sellers who had moved from the silted-up port of Satgaon, farther upstream. The presence of these sellers could have been to some degree liable for Charnock’s choice of the site.
Kolkata is arranged in the eastern piece of India. It has spread straightforwardly along the banks of Hooghly River. The Kolkata Municipal Corporation has an area of 205 square kilometers. The city is near the sea level, with the typical stature being 17 feet. The whole area is in the Ganges Delta what starts inside 100 km south to the city. By far most of the city was at first moist wetlands, remnants of which can regardless be found especially towards the eastern bits of the city.